Advanced Seismic Data Acquisition and Processing

Jaap Mondt 
Derk Jan Feenstra 
5 days

Business context

Seismic Acquisition and Processing is part of a sequence of related activities and its design should in the first place reflect the purpose of acquiring the data. In general the sequence consists of acquisition, processing, interpretation (structural, stratigraphic, quantitative), providing input for static and dynamic reservoir modelling and eventually for time-lapse applications related to reservoir management. In addition it should be remembered that seismic is only one of the many means of investigating the earth. Think of gravity, magnetic, electromagnetic, etc.

Fundamentally the aim of seismic acquisition is to acquire a data set that will after processing provide (within budgetary constraints) a best possible image of the subsurface. That means that the data should not only show structure but also capture information on the rock properties. In other (geophysical) words, the subsurface should be sufficiently illuminated and the reflection amplitudes should "contain" the properties of the rock matrix and the pore fluids.

Surveys will in first instance be designed on the basis required bin size, offset and azimuth distributions, multiplicity, etc. Although these requirements need to be satisfied, they might still not be sufficient for the purpose. Namely they still might not indicate how well the subsurface will be illuminated. Using recent advances in geophysics, the degree of illumination can be investigated using "model-based" resolution functions, also called point-spread functions. These resolution functions are a powerful tool for evaluating/comparing different acquisition geometries and also different processing sequences.

Who should attend

Geophysicists and geologists involved in specifying seismic data acquisition and processing. As mentioned above seismic acquisition and processing is part of an integrated effort to determine the prospectivity of the subsurface, be it in exploration, production or reservoir management.

Course content

Although the role of seismic as one of the data sets to be used in obtaining a clear image of the subsurface will be highlighted, the main topic will be acquisition and processing of seismic data. As such the following topics will be dealt with

  • Acquisition strategies in view of the survey objectives
  • 2D, 3D and 4D acquisition
  • Basics of wave propagation
  • Design of a 2D survey
  • Design of a 3D survey using a Design Wizard
  • Methods of comparing design parameters
  • Processing Objectives
  • Processing sequences
  • Improving signal-to-noise, vertical and horizontal resolution
  • Imaging
  • Survey comparing through use of model-based resolution or point-spread functions
  • Time-Depth conversion
  • Anisotropy
  • What to spend on a new survey (Value of Information)
  • Special processing for interpretation (Spectral Decomposition)

Learning, methods and tools

At the end of the course participants will have a solid foundation in seismic acquisition and processing theory and practice. They will have the basic knowledge to specify the requirements for designing a seismic acquisition processing project in cooperation with experts, be it in-house or from service companies

The course uses a mixture of lectures, practical exercises and demonstrations. Use of laptops for computer-based exercises and WIFI Internet access is a necessity.

Participants will be actively involved in class discussions. Their understanding will be enhanced through team work summarising learning points and formulation of multiple-choice quizzes.

Although mathematical equations/formulations will be mentioned, the course, however, will mainly concentrate on understanding the concepts behind correct acquisition and processing and the role that acquisition and processing play in the total sequence of activities.

Also, the course content can be customized to meet the specific background and needs of the participants.

Day by day programme

Day1: Fundamentals of Geophysical methods

  • Introduction, biography, course schedule, defining teams
  • Seismic & non-seismic methods
  • Seismic workflow, 2D-3D-4D seismic
  • Seismic wave propagation, exercises
  • Seismic acquisition

Day2: Seismic Acquisition

  • Summary and quiz questions of day 1
  • Survey design, QA/QC checklist,
  • 2D survey design, exercise
  • Land seismic surveys
  • Marine seismic surveys
  • 3D survey design, resolution aspects, wide azimuth, exercise

Day3: Seismic Processing

  • Summary and quiz questions of day 2
  • Generic processing sequences
  • Reflection & transmission, velocities, exercises
  • Understanding the Fourier transform
  • Seismic objectives: improving S/N, vertical & horizontal resolution
  • Signal processing, deconvolution, exercises

Day4: Seismic Processing

  • Summary and quiz questions of day 3
  • Multiple elimination, exercise
  • Imaging, migration operators, exercise
  • RTM, isotropic imaging
  • TD conversion

Day5: Special Topics

  • Summary and quiz questions of day 4
  • Anisotropy
  • Anisotropic imaging
  • Value of Information (VOI), exercise
  • Multiple choice quiz
  • Course evaluation